I was first introduced to foam flies around 15 years ago. One of my favourite dry flies up to that point was the big ugly 'Madam X', which is basically a big clump of deer or elk hair, over a yellow body, with rubber legs in the shape of an X, hence the name.
Madam X was very successful for me, but it had a major drawback, the same one that affects all fur, hair and feather dry-flies, you have to dry the damn things every five seconds.
So when I saw foam flies I was hooked, and as it transpires so were plenty of fish. I would back a big fugly foam fly splashed down over fish feeding on miniscule somethings, to an imitative pattern any day.
Now the designs of foam flies are only constrained by the tier's imagination, and some of the flies almost defy imagination.
The "Bionic Bug" tied by Stu Tripney of New Zealand won the US Fly Tying Federation's best fly of the year award a few years ago, but it has little or no similarity to any natural fly or bug I have ever seen; though what happens in the dark, dank depths of the bottom of the South Island of New Zealand are perhaps better left undisturbed.
So what is the attraction of these monstrosities?
Let's start at the trout's end of the proceedings. Why would this creature who has spent millennia honing it's predation skills, rush to the surface to scoff down these floating horrors with obvious glee and gusto, (if you will permit me lurching into a bit of anthropomorphism).
Well I have not an inkling of a clue - but fish do come from a long way down to hit foam flies, and they usually take them in a big splash.
Once I was casting to a fish near the far bank; I dropped the fly about 2 metres ahead of the fish and watched it drift back. I saw 'my' fish make that body stiffening movement they often make before they rise, and then it started towards the surface.
So fixed was my gaze on 'my' fish, I failed to see another fish racing downstream after the fly until it got very close to the fly. The fly disappeared under a screen of spray, one fish was hooked, the other departed. I do not know which fish I hooked.
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I think the attraction of foam flies is simply that they look big and buggy, and represent a decent return for the energy required to rise and grab it.
OK, that is well and good in Summer when a foam line, where two or more currents meet holds terrestrials (land based insects that are blown or fall into the water, or are washed in during heavy rain) but at other times?
Well that is the thing; over several Winters here in New Zealand, I have been fishing foam-flies, and getting results.
I started fishing foam-flies with a nymph tied short off the bend of the foam-fly, to try and entice Rainbows out of fallen-tree infested pools. It worked. But it was always the foam fly that got clobbered, never the nymph. So I retired the nymph, and nothing changed.
This is over fish supposedly not interested in feeding while they make the upriver run to the spawning grounds. Conventional wisdom would have us believe that spawning rainbows will not move further than the length of a gnat's eyelash to take a fly, but it seems it isn't necessarily so.
So why do trout take foam flies?
My theory, and it is just a theory, is that trout have limited 'seasonal memory' with regard to feeding. They feed on what is around them at the time, but what is around them at any time is usually constrained by the seasons.
I do not believe trout have the brain power to view potential prey and decide not to bite it because it is the wrong season. So, plopping down a thumping great terrestrial in plain view of a trout any time of the year, at the very least, will excite keen interest.
I have some evidence of sorts.
When I was around 9 or 10, a friend and I would collect Grasshoppers and Cicadas in Summer, and store them in tightly sealed tins. Over the rest of the year we would climb out on the big branches of Willow trees overhanging the Waimakariri River just North of Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand, and 'dap' (lightly drop a fly on the water), the bugs onto the water's surface on nylon hand-lines.
We could catch trout all year round. (Well, we did, until the fishing regulations in the bulky form of a Ranger bought things to a sudden halt.)
Here is the quick run-down:
In general, foam flies are fished in much the same way as fur and feather dry flies. Cast above the fish and let the fly drift to and over the fish. But there are a couple of techniques that can prove deadly.
Cast slightly on the 'up', so the fly is about a couple of metres or so above the target area, then give the line a short (5cm) sharp pull. This should drop the fly onto the water with a nice plop.
If the fish is holding close to a bank, firing the fly onto the bank and then pulling it back into the water works well too.
In rough pocket water (the water around boulders and rocks in fast flowing streams or rivers) fishing foam flies really come into their own.
Let them surge down chutes of water and drown at the end, it will soon pop back up, often enough milliseconds ahead of a fish.
On calm lakes allow the fly to settle, then give it a small tug, just enough to send ripples radiating out from the fly. Repeat as necessary.
There is an old fly fishing saying that goes; "The answer to the question - is this fly too big - is always yes".
Well in foam fly terms this answer is not necessarily so.
While it is true that there are many foam patterns, especially for ants and beetles that can be tied imitatively and down to sizes 12, 14 and beyond, I put these flies under the general heading of dry flies, they are both designed to look the same.
But fugly great foam flies are usually tied on size 6 to 10 hooks, as are most of the flies in the photos accompanying this article. Big beguiling bugs.
That is about it really - except to note that the best book I have found on building foam flies is 'Tying Flies with Foam Fur and Feathers' by Harrison R Stevens III. This book covers tying imitative and ugly foam flies.
Tie some up, buy some or beg some, but get some. Watching a trout absolutely smash a foam fly is one of fishing's most exciting moments.
Article written by Tony Bishop
My first trout fishing book Fishing Smarter for Trout is now up on this site and
free to read. Includes regular updates and new stuff.
Rough-up Flies to Catch More Trout
It is first rule of successful fishing tackle retailing - first catch your fisherman.
I saw far too many illustrations of the truth of this rule in my decade in the tackle business to argue against it.
This rule is based on a simple premise – the better a lure or fly looks to the angler the more likely money will change hands. The paint jobs on some lures are so good you could swear they could be floured, battered, fried, and served with chips (or 'do you want fries with that', if you live in the US).
But what is eminently edible to our eyes is not necessarily mouth-watering to a fish.
Most store-bought flies are overdressed. Bit like wearing a ball-gown to a barbecue.
Deadly in Lakes
One of the strangest looking but most productive flies you can use in still or very slow moving waters.
There are no prizes for guessing how the fly got its name, once you see the fly, and also no prizes for those who think that these flies are sometimes called "Dolly Parton’s".
The combination of its bobbing action as the foam beads of the head struggle to lift the fly, and the seductive wriggle of the marabou tail often proves irresistible to trout. But it is one of the most misunderstood flies being used in New Zealand and around the world today.